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Latest Science News -- ScienceDaily

Published: Jul 23, 2021 7:30:01 PM
Breaking science news and articles on global warming, extrasolar planets, stem cells, bird flu, autism, nanotechnology, dinosaurs, evolution -- the latest discoveries in astronomy, anthropology, biology, chemistry, climate and environment, computers, engineering, health and medicine, math, physics, psychology, technology, and more -- from the world's leading universities and research organizations.
  • Jul 23, 2021 5:12:18 PM
    When experiencing the ups and downs of a virtual roller coaster ride, people who get migraine headaches reported more dizziness and motion sickness than people who do not get migraines, according to a new study.
  • Jul 23, 2021 5:08:49 PM
    There are many reasons that an intranasal vaccine against the SARS-CoV-2 virus would be helpful in the fight against COVID-19 infections, immunologists write in a new article.
  • Jul 23, 2021 5:08:40 PM
    Long thought of as a generic alarm system, the locus coeruleus may actually be a sophisticated regulator of learning and behavior, according to a new review.
  • Jul 23, 2021 4:15:17 PM
    In a wealth and longevity study to incorporate siblings and twin pair data, researchers analyzed the midlife net worth of adults (mean age 46.7 years) and their mortality rates 24 years later. They discovered those with greater wealth at midlife tended to live longer.
  • Jul 23, 2021 4:15:14 PM
    New research by an Executive PhD Research student at the Business School (formerly Cass) outlines how elderly patients with neurological conditions are significantly more likely to develop delirium shortly after they are hospitalised, and those admitted on Sunday and Tuesday are more likely to develop the disorder.
  • Jul 23, 2021 4:15:12 PM
    Researchers have discovered that spontaneous impulses of dopamine, the neurological messenger known as the brain's 'feel good' chemical, occur in the brain of mice. The study found that mice can willfully manipulate these random dopamine pulses for reward.
  • Jul 23, 2021 4:15:08 PM
    Humid tropical forests, vital in global efforts to limit rising temperatures, are under threat as a result of changes in land use and climate. Now, researchers have developed a new way to keep tabs on the vulnerability of these forests on a global scale using satellite data called the tropical forest vulnerability index (TFVI).
  • Jul 23, 2021 4:14:56 PM
    Researchers have developed a general framework and metadevices for achieving dynamic control of THz wavefronts. Instead of locally controlling the individual meta-atoms in a THz metasurface (e.g., via PIN diode, varactor, etc.), they vary the polarization of a light beam with rotating multilayer cascaded metasurfaces.
  • Jul 23, 2021 2:53:19 PM
    Scientists have studied the characteristics determining the maximum running speed in animals. The model they developed explains why humans cannot keep up with the fastest sprinters in the animal kingdom. Based on these calculations, the giant spider Shelob from 'The Lord of the Rings' would have reached a maximum speed of 60 km/h.
  • Jul 23, 2021 2:53:16 PM
    A new optogenetic tool, a protein that can be controlled by light, has been characterized by researchers. They used an opsin -- a protein that occurs in the brain and eyes -- from zebrafish and introduced it into the brain of mice. Unlike other optogenetic tools, this opsin is not switched on but rather switched off by light. Experiments also showed that the tool could be suitable for investigating changes in the brain that are responsible for the development of epilepsy.
  • Jul 23, 2021 2:53:10 PM
    Researchers have used lignin, a natural polymer abundant in wood and other plant sources, to create a safe, low-cost and high-performing coating for use in construction. As there is a global urge to meet the rising sustainability standards, this new coating has great potential to protect wood, whose use in construction is continually increasing. The new coating is non-toxic, hydrofobic, it retains wood's breathability and natural roughness while being resistant to color changes and abrasion.
  • Jul 23, 2021 2:53:04 PM
    Researchers have discovered a previously unknown repair process in the brain that they hope could be harnessed and enhanced to treat seizure-related brain injuries.
  • Jul 23, 2021 2:52:58 PM
    Researchers have recently identified a DNA region known as VNTR2-1 that appears to drive the activity of the telomerase gene, which has been shown to prevent aging in certain types of cells. Knowing how the telomerase gene is regulated and activated and why it is only active in certain cell types could someday be the key to understanding how humans age and how to stop the spread of cancer.
  • Jul 23, 2021 2:52:56 PM
    Advanced technologies have been used to solve a long-standing mystery about why some people develop serious illness when they are infected with the malaria parasite, while others carry the infection asymptomatically.
  • Jul 23, 2021 2:52:53 PM
    New research debunks a long-held belief about our ancestors' eating habits.
  • Jul 23, 2021 2:52:47 PM
    Researchers investigate how our brains proceed from merely seeing a landscape to feeling its aesthetic impact.
  • Jul 23, 2021 2:52:42 PM
    Scientists have created plants whose cells and tissues 'blush' with beetroot pigments when they are colonized by fungi that help them take up nutrients from the soil. This is the first time this vital, 400 million year old process has been visualized in real time in full root systems of living plants. Understanding the dynamics of plant colonisation by fungi could help to make food production more sustainable in the future.
  • Jul 23, 2021 2:52:36 PM
    Scientists have identified five new plant species in the Bolivian Andes. The species are all part of the genus Jacquemontia, which are twining or trailing plants with pretty blue flowers.
  • Jul 23, 2021 2:52:33 PM
    Researchers have developed a methodology for avoiding conflicts of use in transboundary rivers. The model-based procedure allows for participatory planning and cooperative management of water resources.
  • Jul 23, 2021 2:52:30 PM
    A phenomenon known from quantum systems could now make its way into biology: Researchers show that the notion of topological protection can also apply to biochemical networks. The model which the scientists developed makes the topological toolbox, typically used only to describe quantum systems, now also available to biology.
  • Jul 23, 2021 2:52:22 PM
    Many species within Kenya's Tana River Basin will be unable to survive if global temperatures continue to rise as they are on track to do - according to new research. A new study outlines how remaining within the goals of the Paris Agreement would save many species. The research also identifies places that could be restored to better protect biodiversity and contribute towards global ecosystem restoration targets.
  • Jul 23, 2021 1:56:47 PM
    DeepMind is partnering with EMBL to make the most complete and accurate database yet of the predicted human protein structures freely and openly available to the scientific community. The AlphaFold Protein Structure Database will enable research that advances understanding of these building blocks of life, accelerating research across a variety of fields. AlphaFold's impact is already being realized by early partners researching neglected diseases, studying antibiotic resistance, and recycling single-use plastics.
  • Jul 22, 2021 11:50:03 PM
    A dust storm that engulfed Mars in 2018 destroyed a vortex of cold air around the planet's south pole and brought an early spring to the hemisphere. By contrast, the storm caused only minor distortions to the polar vortex in the northern hemisphere and no dramatic seasonal changes.
  • Jul 22, 2021 11:50:00 PM
    A team is paving the way for future rovers to search for meteorites on Mars. The scientists are using an extensive meteorite collection to test the spectral instruments destined for the ExoMars rover Rosalind Franklin, and develop tools to identify meteorites on the surface of the red planet.
  • Jul 22, 2021 9:12:20 PM
    By analyzing peoples' visitation patterns to essential establishments like pharmacies, religious centers and grocery stores during Hurricane Harvey, researchers have developed a framework to assess the recovery of communities after natural disasters in near real time. They said the information gleaned from their analysis would help federal agencies allocate resources equitably among communities ailing from a disaster.
  • Jul 22, 2021 9:12:15 PM
    After kidney transplantation, natural killer cells of the recipient become active because they miss 'self' proteins on donor cells. These cells contribute to organ rejection, in addition to traditional modes of rejection involving T cells and antibodies.
  • Jul 22, 2021 9:12:10 PM
    The body's so-called good cholesterol may be even better than we realize. New research suggests that one type of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has a previously unknown role in protecting the liver from injury. This HDL protects the liver by blocking inflammatory signals produced by common gut bacteria.
  • Jul 22, 2021 8:30:28 PM
    Researchers have been able to use seismic data to look inside Mars for the first time. They measured the crust, mantle and core and narrowed down their composition.
  • Jul 22, 2021 8:30:26 PM
    A new approach to analysing the development of magnetic tangles on the Sun has led to a breakthrough in a longstanding debate about how solar energy is injected into the solar atmosphere before being released into space, causing space weather events. The first direct evidence that field lines become knotted before they emerge at the visible surface of the Sun has implications for our ability to predict the behavior of active regions and the nature of the solar interior.
  • Jul 22, 2021 8:30:20 PM
    Millennials, often referred to as the 'job-hopping generation,' represent a group of young workers who once grabbed the national spotlight with their publicized demands for 'fun' work perks, such as happy hours. However, researchers have discovered today's young workers -- ages 21-34 -- represent a life-stage shift toward placing more value on having respectful communication in the workplace over trendy work perks.
  • Jul 22, 2021 8:30:17 PM
    Having friends may not only be good for the health of your social life, but also for your actual health -- if you're a hyena, that is. Strong social connections and greater maternal care early in life can influence molecular markers related to gene expression in DNA and future stress response, suggests a new study of spotted hyenas in the wild.
  • Jul 22, 2021 8:30:06 PM
    The lithium-ion battery is the future of sustainable energy technology, but drastic volume fluctuations in their anodes related to enhanced battery capacity raises a safety concern. Recently, researchers have found that embedding manganese selenide anodes in a 3D carbon nanosheet matrix is an innovative, simple, and low-cost means of reducing drastic volume expansion while improving the energy density of these batteries.
  • Jul 22, 2021 8:30:03 PM
    Scientists have built an artificial intelligence (AI) model that identifies chemical compounds that promote healthy aging - paving the way towards pharmaceutical innovations that extend a person's lifespan.
  • Jul 22, 2021 8:30:00 PM
    Researchers shrunk a deadly glioblastoma tumor by more than a third using a helmet generating a noninvasive oscillating magnetic field that the patient wore on his head while administering the therapy in his own home. The 53-year-old patient died from an unrelated injury about a month into the treatment, but during that short time, 31% of the tumor mass disappeared. The autopsy of his brain confirmed the rapid response to the treatment.
  • Jul 22, 2021 8:29:57 PM
    Researchers have uncovered evidence showing that cattle are losing important environmental adaptations, losses the researchers attribute to a lack of genetic information available to farmers. After examining genetic material stretching back to the 1960s, they identified specific DNA variations associated with adaptations that could one day be used to create DNA tests for cattle -- tests that could tell farmers whether their cattle are suited for one environment or another.
  • Jul 22, 2021 8:29:52 PM
    Not a moonshot: Astronomers explore possibility of lunar observatory to better understand fundamental physics, astronomy and cosmology.
  • Jul 22, 2021 6:52:17 PM
    Engineers developed a soft, stretchy ultrasound patch that can be worn on the skin to monitor blood flow through vessels deep inside the body. Such a device can make it easier to detect cardiovascular problems, like blockages in the arteries that could lead to strokes or heart attacks.
  • Jul 22, 2021 6:20:37 PM
    As a newborn mammal opens its eyes for the first time, it can already make visual sense of the world around it. But how does this happen before they have experienced sight?
  • Jul 22, 2021 6:20:31 PM
    A new tool that enables thousands of tiny experiments to run simultaneously on a single polymer chip will let scientists study enzymes faster and more comprehensively than ever before.
  • Jul 22, 2021 6:20:29 PM
    A new study shows that the stiffness of protein fibers in tissues, like collagen, are a key component in controlling the movement of cells. The groundbreaking discovery provides the first proof of a theory from the early 1980s and could have a major impact on fields that study cell movement from regenerative medicine to cancer research.
  • Jul 22, 2021 6:20:24 PM
    The rapid spread of the Alpha variant of COVID-19 in the UK resulted from biological changes in the virus and was enhanced by large numbers of infected people 'exporting' the variant around the country, in what the researchers call a 'super-seeding' event.
  • Jul 22, 2021 6:20:03 PM
    Scientists have shown that cockatoos, an iconic Australian bird species, learn from each other a unique skill -- lifting garbage bin lids to gather food. The research confirms that cockatoos spread this novel behavior through social learning. This behavior by cockatoos is actually learnt, rather than a result of genetics.
  • Jul 22, 2021 6:19:54 PM
    A computational analysis of COVID-19 tests suggests that, in order to minimize the number of infections in a population, the amount of testing matters more than the sensitivity of the tests that are used.
  • Jul 22, 2021 6:19:50 PM
    Infection with dengue virus makes mosquitoes more sensitive to warmer temperatures, according to new research. The team also found that infection with the bacterium Wolbachia, which has recently been used to control viral infections in mosquitoes, also increases the thermal sensitivity of the insects. The findings suggest that global warming could limit the spread of dengue fever but could also limit the effectiveness of Wolbachia as a biological control agent.
  • Jul 22, 2021 5:13:59 PM
    Researchers have developed a way to analyze how individual immune cells react to the bacteria that cause tuberculosis. It could pave the way for new vaccine strategies and provide insights into fighting other infectious diseases.
  • Jul 22, 2021 5:13:54 PM
    The touchscreen technology used in billions of smartphones and tablets could also be used as a powerful sensor, without the need for any modifications.
  • Jul 22, 2021 5:13:48 PM
    Plastics offer many benefits to society and are widely used in our daily life: they are lightweight, cheap and adaptable. However, the production, processing and disposal of plastics pose a major global threat to the environment and human health. However, researchers have now found a sustainable method - 'hydrosetting', which uses water at normal conditions - to process and reshape a new type of hydroplastic polymer.
  • Jul 22, 2021 5:13:45 PM
    New hydrogels mimic intestines when lined with epithelial cells. A study demonstrated hydrogels in various stiffnesses are valuable for learning the dynamics of pathogens that cause diarrhea and other intestinal diseases.
  • Jul 22, 2021 5:13:42 PM
    Researchers have developed a method that uses a gaming graphics card to control plasma formation in their prototype fusion reactor.
  • Jul 22, 2021 5:13:39 PM
    To meet an ambitious goal of carbon neutrality by 2045, California's policymakers are relying in part on forests and shrublands to remove CO2 from the atmosphere, but researchers warn that future climate change may limit the ecosystem's ability to perform this service.
  • Jul 22, 2021 4:12:42 PM
    Any life identified on planets orbiting white dwarf stars almost certainly evolved after the star's death, says a new study that reveals the consequences of the intense and furious stellar winds that will batter a planet as its star is dying.
  • Jul 22, 2021 4:06:24 PM
    It's a favourite first-order for the day, but while a quick coffee may perk us up, new research shows that too much could be dragging us down, especially when it comes to brain health.
  • Jul 22, 2021 4:06:12 PM
    An innovative testing platform that more closely mimics what cancer encounters in the body may allow for more precise, personalized therapies by enabling the rapid study of multiple therapeutic combinations against tumor cells. The platform uses a three-dimensional environment to more closely mirror a tumor microenvironment.
  • Jul 22, 2021 4:06:07 PM
    Silicon, a semi-metal, bonds in its natural form with four other elements and its three-dimensional structure takes the form of a tetrahedron. For a long time, it seemed impossible to achieve the synthesis and characterization of a two-dimensional equivalent - geometrically speaking, a square. Now scientists have succeeded in producing a crystalline complex with such a configuration.
  • Jul 22, 2021 3:31:13 PM
    After examining nearly the entire human genome for genetic changes that increase risk of aneurysm, researchers discovered a new change in the genetic code of a transcription factor.
  • Jul 22, 2021 3:31:06 PM
    Researchers used the City of Pittsburgh to create a model built upon the design, materials and purpose of commercial buildings to estimate their energy usage and emissions.
  • Jul 22, 2021 3:30:58 PM
    A new approach to treating breast cancer kills 95 to 100 percent of cancer cells in mouse models of human estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancers and their metastases in bone, brain, liver and lungs. The newly developed drug, called ErSO, quickly shrinks even large tumors to undetectable levels.
  • Jul 22, 2021 3:30:55 PM
    For more than a century, researchers have relied on flat sketches of sharks' digestive systems to discern how they function -- and how what they eat and excrete impacts other species in the ocean. Now, researchers have produced a series of high-resolution, 3D scans of intestines from nearly three dozen shark species that will advance the understanding of how sharks eat and digest their food.
  • Jul 22, 2021 3:30:52 PM
    Scientists have successfully reversed age-related memory loss in mice and say their discovery could lead to the development of treatments to prevent memory loss in people as they age.
  • Jul 22, 2021 3:30:49 PM
    An international physics team has proposed a new concept that may allow selected cosmic extreme processes to be studied in the laboratory in the future. A special setup of two high-intensity laser beams could create conditions similar to those found near neutron stars, for example. An antimatter jet is generated and accelerated very efficiently, as the experts report.
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