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Top Technology News -- ScienceDaily

Published: Jul 23, 2021 8:00:03 PM
Top stories featured on ScienceDaily's Space & Time, Matter & Energy, and Computers & Math sections.
  • Jul 23, 2021 4:14:56 PM
    Researchers have developed a general framework and metadevices for achieving dynamic control of THz wavefronts. Instead of locally controlling the individual meta-atoms in a THz metasurface (e.g., via PIN diode, varactor, etc.), they vary the polarization of a light beam with rotating multilayer cascaded metasurfaces.
  • Jul 23, 2021 2:53:16 PM
    A new optogenetic tool, a protein that can be controlled by light, has been characterized by researchers. They used an opsin -- a protein that occurs in the brain and eyes -- from zebrafish and introduced it into the brain of mice. Unlike other optogenetic tools, this opsin is not switched on but rather switched off by light. Experiments also showed that the tool could be suitable for investigating changes in the brain that are responsible for the development of epilepsy.
  • Jul 23, 2021 2:53:10 PM
    Researchers have used lignin, a natural polymer abundant in wood and other plant sources, to create a safe, low-cost and high-performing coating for use in construction. As there is a global urge to meet the rising sustainability standards, this new coating has great potential to protect wood, whose use in construction is continually increasing. The new coating is non-toxic, hydrofobic, it retains wood's breathability and natural roughness while being resistant to color changes and abrasion.
  • Jul 23, 2021 2:52:30 PM
    A phenomenon known from quantum systems could now make its way into biology: Researchers show that the notion of topological protection can also apply to biochemical networks. The model which the scientists developed makes the topological toolbox, typically used only to describe quantum systems, now also available to biology.
  • Jul 23, 2021 1:56:47 PM
    DeepMind is partnering with EMBL to make the most complete and accurate database yet of the predicted human protein structures freely and openly available to the scientific community. The AlphaFold Protein Structure Database will enable research that advances understanding of these building blocks of life, accelerating research across a variety of fields. AlphaFold's impact is already being realized by early partners researching neglected diseases, studying antibiotic resistance, and recycling single-use plastics.
  • Jul 22, 2021 11:50:03 PM
    A dust storm that engulfed Mars in 2018 destroyed a vortex of cold air around the planet's south pole and brought an early spring to the hemisphere. By contrast, the storm caused only minor distortions to the polar vortex in the northern hemisphere and no dramatic seasonal changes.
  • Jul 22, 2021 11:50:00 PM
    A team is paving the way for future rovers to search for meteorites on Mars. The scientists are using an extensive meteorite collection to test the spectral instruments destined for the ExoMars rover Rosalind Franklin, and develop tools to identify meteorites on the surface of the red planet.
  • Jul 22, 2021 8:30:28 PM
    Researchers have been able to use seismic data to look inside Mars for the first time. They measured the crust, mantle and core and narrowed down their composition.
  • Jul 22, 2021 8:30:26 PM
    A new approach to analysing the development of magnetic tangles on the Sun has led to a breakthrough in a longstanding debate about how solar energy is injected into the solar atmosphere before being released into space, causing space weather events. The first direct evidence that field lines become knotted before they emerge at the visible surface of the Sun has implications for our ability to predict the behavior of active regions and the nature of the solar interior.
  • Jul 22, 2021 8:30:06 PM
    The lithium-ion battery is the future of sustainable energy technology, but drastic volume fluctuations in their anodes related to enhanced battery capacity raises a safety concern. Recently, researchers have found that embedding manganese selenide anodes in a 3D carbon nanosheet matrix is an innovative, simple, and low-cost means of reducing drastic volume expansion while improving the energy density of these batteries.
  • Jul 22, 2021 8:29:52 PM
    Not a moonshot: Astronomers explore possibility of lunar observatory to better understand fundamental physics, astronomy and cosmology.
  • Jul 22, 2021 6:52:17 PM
    Engineers developed a soft, stretchy ultrasound patch that can be worn on the skin to monitor blood flow through vessels deep inside the body. Such a device can make it easier to detect cardiovascular problems, like blockages in the arteries that could lead to strokes or heart attacks.
  • Jul 22, 2021 6:20:31 PM
    A new tool that enables thousands of tiny experiments to run simultaneously on a single polymer chip will let scientists study enzymes faster and more comprehensively than ever before.
  • Jul 22, 2021 5:13:54 PM
    The touchscreen technology used in billions of smartphones and tablets could also be used as a powerful sensor, without the need for any modifications.
  • Jul 22, 2021 5:13:48 PM
    Plastics offer many benefits to society and are widely used in our daily life: they are lightweight, cheap and adaptable. However, the production, processing and disposal of plastics pose a major global threat to the environment and human health. However, researchers have now found a sustainable method - 'hydrosetting', which uses water at normal conditions - to process and reshape a new type of hydroplastic polymer.
  • Jul 22, 2021 5:13:45 PM
    New hydrogels mimic intestines when lined with epithelial cells. A study demonstrated hydrogels in various stiffnesses are valuable for learning the dynamics of pathogens that cause diarrhea and other intestinal diseases.
  • Jul 22, 2021 5:13:42 PM
    Researchers have developed a method that uses a gaming graphics card to control plasma formation in their prototype fusion reactor.
  • Jul 22, 2021 4:12:42 PM
    Any life identified on planets orbiting white dwarf stars almost certainly evolved after the star's death, says a new study that reveals the consequences of the intense and furious stellar winds that will batter a planet as its star is dying.
  • Jul 22, 2021 4:06:12 PM
    An innovative testing platform that more closely mimics what cancer encounters in the body may allow for more precise, personalized therapies by enabling the rapid study of multiple therapeutic combinations against tumor cells. The platform uses a three-dimensional environment to more closely mirror a tumor microenvironment.
  • Jul 22, 2021 4:06:07 PM
    Silicon, a semi-metal, bonds in its natural form with four other elements and its three-dimensional structure takes the form of a tetrahedron. For a long time, it seemed impossible to achieve the synthesis and characterization of a two-dimensional equivalent - geometrically speaking, a square. Now scientists have succeeded in producing a crystalline complex with such a configuration.
  • Jul 22, 2021 3:31:06 PM
    Researchers used the City of Pittsburgh to create a model built upon the design, materials and purpose of commercial buildings to estimate their energy usage and emissions.
  • Jul 22, 2021 3:30:49 PM
    An international physics team has proposed a new concept that may allow selected cosmic extreme processes to be studied in the laboratory in the future. A special setup of two high-intensity laser beams could create conditions similar to those found near neutron stars, for example. An antimatter jet is generated and accelerated very efficiently, as the experts report.
  • Jul 22, 2021 3:30:43 PM
    A new study shows that deep learning models trained on large sets of cancer genetic and tissue histology data can easily identify the institution that submitted the images.
  • Jul 22, 2021 3:30:37 PM
    The future of Samoa's electricity system could go green, a new study has shown.
  • Jul 22, 2021 3:30:26 PM
    Researchers describe a new type of camera technology that, when aimed at an object, can rapidly retrieve 3D images, displaying its chemical content down to the micrometer scale.
  • Jul 22, 2021 3:30:07 PM
    Advances in microscopy reveal how the human genome organises itself in three-dimensional space at much higher resolution than previously possible. A new study finds that transcription generates a force that moves across DNA strands like ripples through water. The discovery may have future implications for the understanding of genetic diseases such as Cornelia de Lange syndrome, developmental disorders linked to chromatin folding, and open new avenues of research in genome fragility and cancer development.
  • Jul 22, 2021 3:29:50 PM
    New high-resolution observations clearly show a moon-forming region around exoplanet PDS 70c. The observations have allowed astronomers to determine the ring-shaped region's size and mass for the first time.
  • Jul 22, 2021 3:29:20 PM
    Researchers report the first structural confirmation that endogenous -- or self-made -- molecules can set off innate immunity in mammals via a pair of immune cell proteins called the TLR4-MD-2 receptor complex. The work has wide-ranging implications for finding ways to treat and possibly prevent autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and antiphospholipid syndrome.
  • Jul 22, 2021 3:29:08 PM
    Researchers have developed a tougher, safer bicycle helmet using a combination of materials. The new helmet prototype has higher energy absorption, reducing the amount of energy transferred to a cyclist's head in the event of an accident and likely lowering the chances of serious injury.
  • Jul 22, 2021 3:29:02 PM
    Many applications, from fiber-optic telecommunications to biomedical imaging processes require substances that emit light in the near-infrared range (NIR). A research team has now developed the first chromium complex that emits light in the coveted, longer wavelength NIR-II range. The team has introduced the underlying concept: a drastic change in the electronic structure of the chromium caused by the specially tailored ligands that envelop it.
  • Jul 22, 2021 3:28:53 PM
    Researchers have automated brain MRI image labeling, needed to teach machine learning image recognition models, by deriving important labels from radiology reports and accurately assigning them to the corresponding MRI examinations. Now, more than 100,00 MRI examinations can be labeled in less than half an hour.
  • Jul 22, 2021 3:28:50 PM
    Researchers reported the development of a transferrable and integrative type I CRISPR-based platform that can efficiently edit the diverse clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a superbug capable of infecting various tissues and organs and a major source of nosocomial infections. The technique can accelerate the identification of resistance determinants of multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens and the development of novel anti-resistance strategies.
  • Jul 22, 2021 3:28:44 PM
    A new survey of our home galaxy, the Milky Way, combines the capabilities of the Very Large Array and the Effelsberg telescope in Germany to provide astronomers with valuable new insights into how stars much more massive than the Sun are formed.
  • Jul 21, 2021 9:27:11 PM
    Researchers are rethinking basic functions that drive the ability of neural networks to make inferences on encrypted data.
  • Jul 21, 2021 9:27:08 PM
    A new model mimics physiologic loads on engineering heart muscle tissues, yielding an unprecedented view of how genetics and mechanical forces contribute to heart muscle function.
  • Jul 21, 2021 9:26:58 PM
    Exoskeletons - wearable devices used by workers on assembly lines or in warehouses to alleviate stress on their lower backs - may compete with valuable resources in the brain while people work, canceling out the physical benefits of wearing them, a new study suggests.
  • Jul 21, 2021 9:26:51 PM
    Researchers have unveiled a new simulator for robotic cutting that can accurately reproduce the forces acting on a knife as it slices through common foodstuffs, such as fruit and vegetables. The system could also simulate cutting through human tissue, offering potential applications in surgical robotics.
  • Jul 21, 2021 9:26:48 PM
    A team of scientists proposes that modulated quantum metasurfaces can control all properties of photonic qubits, a breakthrough that could impact the fields of quantum information, communications, sensing and imaging, as well as energy and momentum harvesting.
  • Jul 21, 2021 9:26:45 PM
    A new method could lead to more accurate predictions of how new materials behave at the atomic scale.
  • Jul 21, 2021 6:20:13 PM
    For the first time an autonomously flying quadrotor has outperformed two human pilots in a drone race. The success is based on a novel algorithm that calculates time-optimal trajectories that fully consider the drones' limitations.
  • Jul 21, 2021 6:19:57 PM
    Researchers have created butterflies that flap their wings, flower petals that wiggle with the touch of a button and self-folding origami drawing on new advances in soft robotics.
  • Jul 21, 2021 6:19:08 PM
    Physicists have observed signs of a rare type of superconductivity in a material called 'magic-angle' twisted trilayer graphene. They report that the material exhibits superconductivity at surprisingly high magnetic fields of up to 10 Tesla, which is three times higher than what the material is predicted to endure if it were a conventional superconductor.
  • Jul 21, 2021 4:07:32 PM
    Researchers have constructed a portable, thumb-sized device that diagnoses bad breath by quickly 'sniffing' exhalations for the gas that makes it stinky -- hydrogen sulfide.
  • Jul 21, 2021 4:07:26 PM
    Simulated swimming race times show a small number of times recorded on quartzite oscillator-based devices are off by margins large enough to determine winners.
  • Jul 21, 2021 4:07:23 PM
    Astronomers have made detailed observations of a large tidal flow around the Sombrero galaxy, whose strange morphology has still not been definitively explained.
  • Jul 21, 2021 4:07:20 PM
    Little is known about the weather at night on Venus as the absence of sunlight makes imaging difficult. Now, researchers have devised a way to use infrared sensors on board the Venus orbiter Akatsuki to reveal the first details of the nighttime weather of our nearest neighbor. Their analytical methods could be used to study other planets including Mars and gas giants as well.
  • Jul 21, 2021 4:07:17 PM
    Researchers have developed nanostructures that enable record-breaking conversion of laser pulses into high-harmonic generation, paving the way for new scientific tools for high-resolution imaging.
  • Jul 21, 2021 4:06:57 PM
    An international team of researchers is combining soft scalp electronics and virtual reality in a brain-interface system.
  • Jul 21, 2021 4:06:54 PM
    Researchers have developed a cell culture test to detect substances that are directly or indirectly harmful to embryos. Based on an existing test used for developing new drugs and chemicals, the augmented version is designed to help reduce the number of animal experiments.
  • Jul 21, 2021 4:06:51 PM
    Researchers have designed a new class of molten sodium batteries for grid-scale energy storage.
  • Jul 21, 2021 2:24:29 PM
    Astronomersand engineers are building a new kind of astronomical telescope. SuperBIT flies above 99.5% of the Earth's atmosphere, carried by a helium balloon the size of a football stadium. The telescope will make its operational debut next April and when deployed should obtain high-resolution images rivaling those of the Hubble Space Telescope.
  • Jul 21, 2021 2:23:29 PM
    Researchers have modeled COVID-19 completion versus cessation in clinical trials using machine learning algorithms and ensemble learning.
  • Jul 21, 2021 2:23:14 PM
    A comprehensive new study quantifies what can be done to make buildings more energy efficient and flexible in granular detail by both time (including time of day and year) and space (looking at regions across the U.S.). The research team found that maximizing the deployment of building demand management technologies could avoid the need for up to one-third of coal- or gas-fired power generation.
  • Jul 21, 2021 2:23:11 PM
    Engineers developed technology to use nanoparticles to heat, manipulate cells in the brain and heart.
  • Jul 21, 2021 2:23:03 PM
    The importance of aryl sulfides in biologically active compounds has led chemists to develop methods to synthesize them from carbon-sulfur bond forming reactions. The conventional reaction, however, uses thiols that are foul-smelling and toxic. Now, chemists report a novel, thiol-free synthesis technique comprising a nickel-catalyzed aryl exchange between 2-pyridyl sulfide and aromatic esters, providing a versatile and inexpensive technology for both scientific and industrial applications.
  • Jul 21, 2021 2:22:54 PM
    A major challenge in cancer therapy is the adaptive response of cancer cells to targeted therapies. Although this adaptive response is theoretically reversible, such a reversal is hampered by numerous molecular mechanisms that allow the cancer cells to adapt to the treatment. A team has used information theory, in order to objectify in vivo the molecular regulations at play in the mechanisms of the adaptive response and their modulation by a therapeutic combination.
  • Jul 21, 2021 2:22:51 PM
    A so-called 'strange metal', well-known for its unusual properties, has been shown to be a superconductor at very low temperatures. This allows scientists to study the connection between 'strange metal'-behavior and superconductivity, which could be an important step towards understanding the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity.
  • Jul 20, 2021 10:58:21 PM
    A new fiber, made by genetically engineered bacteria is stronger than steel and tougher than Kevlar.
  • Jul 20, 2021 8:08:17 PM
    Researchers have designed and demonstrated a technology that can block cyberattacks from impacting the nation's electric power grid.
  • Jul 20, 2021 8:08:12 PM
    A chemical and biomolecular engineer is rethinking the traditional use of glucagon as an emergency response by administering it as a preventive measure.
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